Patricia Hill Collins is a professor of sociology from the University of Maryland. Collins  work consisted of and related to gender and feminism within the African american community.  Collins is a prime sociologist to back the theory of Intersectionality.  To understand Intersectionality would take a lot to break down. It may be confusing at first glance but to sum up the definition, Intersectionality is defined as the overlay  of  social categorizations (race, gender, class) that may contribute towards the oppression or discrimination against that person.  With intersectional theory it may argue that one aspect of social identity is given praise in some sort over the rest. Thus creating inequality amongst the identities.



In the reading The Interaction Of Gender With Other Socially Constructed Prisms, Collins goes into depth about the inequality of the social identities  and proclaims that we as people must try to overlook the differences that we may have.  In order to function as a society there must be change in how we view people that are not from the same background as you. In order to take those first steps simple changes must be done. ” We ,must first recognize race gender class as interlocking categories that together cultivate profound differences in our personal biographies ” (84)



Also  in the reading Collins argues that people must be able rise above oppression. We have been programmed to believe certain things about races, gender,social class, and that is just another way to keep others down.  Oppression can be defined as the practice of power.  Race and gender go hand in hand when it comes to oppression, Women can be seen as the large group that is often oppressed. But Black women are discriminated upon on a daily basis. The way that black women have been defined and broken down goes back hundreds of years.  Black women are compared to white women very often and some time ( more than some) black women seem to get the short end of the stick. black women are compared to women in race which one is better. which one is more beautiful etc.

An example of this would be the way the media depicts certain groups of people. For instance Reality TV, “Reality”  Television plays a huge role in how most people in society view others. In a negative light black women have been depicted as ghetto, loud, and promiscuous. These shows  like Real housewives and basketball wives give  such a negative view of what black women are like these women are just a select few that got an opportunity to showcase their lifestyles but then they are voted on by society to be the sponsor or leaders of them all.  Because we already have set our minds as to what we think or what we feel it will be hard to change. ” To get at the piece of oppressor which is planted deep within each of us’ we also need to change our daily behavior” ( 84) If we don’t try to change our views as a whole then it will never work.

Works cited

Patricia Hill Collins | SOCY l Sociology Department l University of Maryland, Hill.
“Intersectionality.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 7 Aug. 2018,

Social Exchange

 Who is Peter Blau?

peter blau


Peter Blau (February 7, 1918 – March 12, 2002) was born in Vienna, Austria.  He migrated to America in 1939.He was an American sociologist and a leading figure. He made a  vital contribution of the theory of bureaucracy. Through his sociological writings he hoped that society will realize the extent of fairness and equality.

Exchange Theory





The theory of Social Exchange was Blau’s contribution to social theory.  The exchange theory can be broken down in simpler terms as the explanation of the interaction and relationships between people. Blau thought that people valued the social interactions relationships that they have with others. He believed that people enter relationships  needing something from someone in return(i.e: rewards, money, food).

In the textbook Sociological Theory In The Contemporary Era  social behavior is broken down into concepts ” Social behavior is is guided by the rational calculation of an exchange of rewards and costs. Much like our economic calculations through which we determine whether the value ( reward) of a good is worth its price ( cost), so in our social interactions we decide to enter into or terminate a relationship ( exchange) with another.” ( 180)


Give and Take Gold Scale Balance Sharing Generous Cooperation

In today’s society we cant just take things from people and use them for our benefit that would defeat the purpose of  “social exchange”. When forming relationships.  If the relation is one sided then the process of power comes to play.  If indeed one person is able to supply more than the others they will become dependents. ” If the others are unable to receive the benefits from another source and if they are unable to offer rewards to the individual, they become dependents on the individual.” (197)



An example that goes into depth of what Blau thought about when exercising the inequality of power is parenting. As a parent you are constantly worried about the well being of your child(ren). You want whats best for them and try to keep their best interests at heart. Now with some aspects of parent and child relationships the parents will come of with a system to teach the child responsibility as well as routine tasks. Now the social rewards and costs or give and take system come in hand. A parent may want something done like taking out the trash or doing dishes and if those tasks are done then the child may receive a reward or allowance. When I was growing up if I wanted something it wasn’t just handed to be just because. I had a chore system. If I did not complete tasks I could not go thus giving the parent the upper hand.  But to the child that doesn’t seem “fair”. But as a parent you expect or assume that your child must follow and comply to set rules that is set and adjusted as the child advances and grows.

reward chart


Works cited

Appelrouth, S. and Edles, L. (2016). Sociological theory in the contemporary era. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Jeff Lasser.

“Read ‘Biographical Memoirs: Volume 85’ at” National Academies Press: OpenBook,

“Social Exchange Theory.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Aug. 2018,

Thompson, CH. “Weber’s Definition of Power.”, 1 May 2018,

Culture Industry





THEODOR ADORNO (September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969)

Theodor Adorno was a German  philosopher and sociologist known for  his own concepts that contributed to the critical theory. His main focus was that of the human condition in modern society. Adorno was a leading member of the Frankfurt School of critical theory , alongside other well known sociologist and philosophers such as Max Horkheimer and Herbert Marcuse as well as some others . He was most influenced by Marx and his theories. He was engrossed in the process of dethroning capitalism.



calvin culture industry



The term Culture Industry was coined by Adorno and Horkheimer. The term Culture industry  was developed as a critical theme from the work Dialectic of Enlightenment.  Culture Industry is defined in the textbook Sociological Theory of the Contemporary Era  by Scott Appelrouth and Laura  Edles  as the “Sectors involved in the creation and distribution of mass culture products. Television,film, radio, music, magazines , newspapers, books, and advertisements that churn out mass- produced, standardized commodities and ideas that abort and silence criticism.”( 96). When first trying to simplify the definition my understanding of culture industry is the selling, advertising, of mass deception. Kind of like the selling of a dream.

One website that gave a lot of examples of understanding the concept of culture industry to describe it as culture and societies thinking that they have control over the way they think. But in all actuality it is just Pseudo-Individualization.

culture industry media

Pseudo- Individualization

Pseudo- Individualization is defined as “Standardized, mass-produced cultural products endowed with a deceptive halo of free choice.”(Applerouth, Edles 97)

The deception that individuals receive after being tricked into thinking that they are getting something that is different when in actuality they are getting the same thing just some things may be tweaked a bit or not at all.  It is the false differences between two things.

In the case of advertisement pseudo- individualization gives the consumers the hopes of being an individual but the messages, ads, and product are made to reach out to numerous people that may share the same values on a broad spectrum.  For example advertising foods, they may have different names but are advertised as the same product. Stores are well known for doing that ( ie. store brand, Walmart), having the original name brand and then the store brand of the exact product being sold.



In today’s societies there are many ways to gain control over people. Our main source of control is that of the media. It is everywhere, it has programmed us into thinking that we need something to better ourselves. But with media it is all a ploy to keep us the same in order to remain in control.



Appelrouth, S. and Edles, L. (2016). Sociological theory in the contemporary era. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Jeff Lasser.

Blunden, A. (2005). Frankfurt School: The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception. [online] Available at:

Fagan, A. (n.d.). Adorno, Theodor | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [online] Available at:

Helm, C. (2014). Pseudo-Individualization. [online] The Roadrunner Theorist. Available at:

Manifest and Latent Functions

Thanks for joining me!


Most institutions demand unqualified faith; but the institution of science makes skepticism a virtue. — Robert K. Merton

Sociologists use the term functions to describe various forms of religions, education, social status, and government that produce a form of consequence in society.

Image result for robert k merton


Robert K. Merton expanded our comprehension of social functions by explaining that even though social functions are intended, some on the other hand are not intended. Manifest functions are recognized consequences of social patterns, while Latent functions are unintended consequences.

Manifest Functions: Recognized consequences that people observe or expect in a social pattern or social institution.  Manifest functions are deliberate and beneficial.

Latent Functions: The unintended results. Latent functions are  unintentional and unrecognized  to procedures that people participate in.

This website gives a great breakdown of the defining the differences between Manifest  and Latent Functions…

Latent functions are important because it influences people subconsciously to do the right thing in certain cases.   According to the textbook Sociological Theory In The Contemporary Era  the authors  state ” As a result, findings concerning latent functions represent a greater increment in knowledge than finding concerning manifest functions.”( 68)  What I understood from this quote is that a person can gain more knowledge from life lessons than what can be taught to you.



The intended and unintended functions for example in technology. The original  functionality and purpose ( manifest) of a Cellphone is to keep in contact with one another. It made the connection with people easier than with say a landline.  It provided an instant sense of security and made things a lot easier. Now that times have changed so have the purposes of technology and cellphones. People don’t seem to use cellphones only for the purpose of making a phone call but to keep up with society via social media and multiple outlets. ( Twitter ,Snap chat, Facebook, and Instagram)



Image result for cell phone usage chart


The consequence (latent) of this is the new addiction of cellphone. As time goes on and the advancement of these phones people rely on their phone for everyday things.  It may not be bad as far as wanting to keep up with the times but their are some negative aspects of the cellphone like pedestrian related accidents. People not looking while walking because they are too distracted by the use of their phones  increased by 11% within the last year. (NPR)

Related image







Appelrouth,Scott,Edles Laura Sociological Theory In the Contemporary Era.3rd Edition, Jeff Lesser, 2016.

Kingston, K. (n.d.). The Importance Of Cell Phones In Modern Society. Retrieved from

Schaper, D. (2017, March 30). Distraction, On Street And Sidewalk, Helps Cause Record Pedestrian Deaths. Retrieved from

Walton, Alice. Phone Addiction Is Real- And So Are Its Mental Health Risks (2017, December 11). Forbes.